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Priority Lien - Nevada

CHAPTER 116 - COMMON-INTEREST OWNERSHIP (UNIFORM ACT)

Liens

NRS 116.3116  Liens against units for assessments.

1.  The association has a lien on a unit for any construction penalty that is imposed against the unit's owner pursuant to NRS 116.310305, any assessment levied against that unit or any fines imposed against the unit's owner from the time the construction penalty, assessment or fine becomes due. Unless the declaration otherwise provides, any penalties, fees, charges, late charges, fines and interest charged pursuant to paragraphs (j) to (n), inclusive, of subsection 1 of NRS 116.3102 are enforceable as assessments under this section. If an assessment is payable in installments, the full amount of the assessment is a lien from the time the first installment thereof becomes due.

2.  A lien under this section is prior to all other liens and encumbrances on a unit except:

(a) Liens and encumbrances recorded before the recordation of the declaration and, in a cooperative, liens and encumbrances which the association creates, assumes or takes subject to;

(b) A first security interest on the unit recorded before the date on which the assessment sought to be enforced became delinquent or, in a cooperative, the first security interest encumbering only the unit's owner's interest and perfected before the date on which the assessment sought to be enforced became delinquent; and

(c) Liens for real estate taxes and other governmental assessments or charges against the unit or cooperative.

Ê The lien is also prior to all security interests described in paragraph (b) to the extent of any charges incurred by the association on a unit pursuant to NRS 116.310312 and to the extent of the assessments for common expenses based on the periodic budget adopted by the association pursuant to NRS 116.3115 which would have become due in the absence of acceleration during the 9 months immediately preceding institution of an action to enforce the lien, unless federal regulations adopted by the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation or the Federal National Mortgage Association require a shorter period of priority for the lien. If federal regulations adopted by the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation or the Federal National Mortgage Association require a shorter period of priority for the lien, the period during which the lien is prior to all security interests described in paragraph (b) must be determined in accordance with those federal regulations, except that notwithstanding the provisions of the federal regulations, the period of priority for the lien must not be less than the 6 months immediately preceding institution of an action to enforce the lien. This subsection does not affect the priority of mechanics' or materialmen's liens, or the priority of liens for other assessments made by the association.

3.  Unless the declaration otherwise provides, if two or more associations have liens for assessments created at any time on the same property, those liens have equal priority.

4.  Recording of the declaration constitutes record notice and perfection of the lien. No further recordation of any claim of lien for assessment under this section is required.

5.  A lien for unpaid assessments is extinguished unless proceedings to enforce the lien are instituted within 3 years after the full amount of the assessments becomes due.

6.  This section does not prohibit actions to recover sums for which subsection 1 creates a lien or prohibit an association from taking a deed in lieu of foreclosure.

7.  A judgment or decree in any action brought under this section must include costs and reasonable attorney's fees for the prevailing party.

8.  The association, upon written request, shall furnish to a unit's owner a statement setting forth the amount of unpaid assessments against the unit. If the interest of the unit's owner is real estate or if a lien for the unpaid assessments may be foreclosed under NRS 116.31162 to 116.31168, inclusive, the statement must be in recordable form. The statement must be furnished within 10 business days after receipt of the request and is binding on the association, the executive board and every unit's owner.

9.  In a cooperative, upon nonpayment of an assessment on a unit, the unit's owner may be evicted in the same manner as provided by law in the case of an unlawful holdover by a commercial tenant, and:

(a) In a cooperative where the owner's interest in a unit is real estate under NRS 116.1105, the association's lien may be foreclosed under NRS 116.31162 to116.31168, inclusive.

(b) In a cooperative where the owner's interest in a unit is personal property underNRS 116.1105, the association's lien:

(1) May be foreclosed as a security interest under NRS 104.9101 to 104.9709, inclusive; or

(2) If the declaration so provides, may be foreclosed under NRS 116.31162 to116.31168, inclusive.

10.  In an action by an association to collect assessments or to foreclose a lien created under this section, the court may appoint a receiver to collect all rents or other income from the unit alleged to be due and owing to a unit's owner before commencement or during pendency of the action. The receivership is governed bychapter 32 of NRS. The court may order the receiver to pay any sums held by the receiver to the association during pendency of the action to the extent of the association's common expense assessments based on a periodic budget adopted by the association pursuant to NRS 116.3115.

(Added to NRS by 1991, 567; A 1999, 3902003, 224322722009, 10101207;2011, 2448)

NRS 116.31162  Foreclosure of liens: Mailing of notice of delinquent assessment; recording of notice of default and election to sell; period during which unit's owner may pay lien to avoid foreclosure; limitations on type of lien that may be foreclosed.

1.  Except as otherwise provided in subsection 4, in a condominium, in a planned community, in a cooperative where the owner's interest in a unit is real estate underNRS 116.1105, or in a cooperative where the owner's interest in a unit is personal property under NRS 116.1105 and the declaration provides that a lien may be foreclosed under NRS 116.31162 to 116.31168, inclusive, the association may foreclose its lien by sale after all of the following occur:

(a) The association has mailed by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, to the unit's owner or his or her successor in interest, at his or her address, if known, and at the address of the unit, a notice of delinquent assessment which states the amount of the assessments and other sums which are due in accordance with subsection 1 of NRS 116.3116, a description of the unit against which the lien is imposed and the name of the record owner of the unit.

(b) Not less than 30 days after mailing the notice of delinquent assessment pursuant to paragraph (a), the association or other person conducting the sale has executed and caused to be recorded, with the county recorder of the county in which the common-interest community or any part of it is situated, a notice of default and election to sell the unit to satisfy the lien which must contain the same information as the notice of delinquent assessment and which must also comply with the following:

(1) Describe the deficiency in payment.

(2) State the name and address of the person authorized by the association to enforce the lien by sale.

(3) Contain, in 14-point bold type, the following warning:

WARNING! IF YOU FAIL TO PAY THE AMOUNT SPECIFIED IN THIS NOTICE, YOU COULD LOSE YOUR HOME, EVEN IF THE AMOUNT IS IN DISPUTE!

(c) The unit's owner or his or her successor in interest has failed to pay the amount of the lien, including costs, fees and expenses incident to its enforcement, for 90 days following the recording of the notice of default and election to sell.

2.  The notice of default and election to sell must be signed by the person designated in the declaration or by the association for that purpose or, if no one is designated, by the president of the association.

3.  The period of 90 days begins on the first day following:

(a) The date on which the notice of default is recorded; or

(b) The date on which a copy of the notice of default is mailed by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, to the unit's owner or his or her successor in interest at his or her address, if known, and at the address of the unit,

Ê whichever date occurs later.

4.  The association may not foreclose a lien by sale based on a fine or penalty for a violation of the governing documents of the association unless:

(a) The violation poses an imminent threat of causing a substantial adverse effect on the health, safety or welfare of the units' owners or residents of the common-interest community; or

(b) The penalty is imposed for failure to adhere to a schedule required pursuant toNRS 116.310305.

(Added to NRS by 1991, 569; A 1993, 23711997, 31211999, 30112003, 2244,22732005, 2608)

NRS 116.31163  Foreclosure of liens: Mailing of notice of default and election to sell to certain interested persons.  The association or other person conducting the sale shall also mail, within 10 days after the notice of default and election to sell is recorded, a copy of the notice by first-class mail to:

1.  Each person who has requested notice pursuant to NRS 107.090 or 116.31168;

2.  Any holder of a recorded security interest encumbering the unit's owner's interest who has notified the association, 30 days before the recordation of the notice of default, of the existence of the security interest; and

3.  A purchaser of the unit, if the unit's owner has notified the association, 30 days before the recordation of the notice, that the unit is the subject of a contract of sale and the association has been requested to furnish the certificate required by NRS 116.4109.

(Added to NRS by 1993, 2355; A 2005, 2609)

NRS 116.311635  Foreclosure of liens: Providing notice of time and place of sale; service of notice of sale; contents of notice of sale; proof of service.

1.  The association or other person conducting the sale shall also, after the expiration of the 90 days and before selling the unit:

(a) Give notice of the time and place of the sale in the manner and for a time not less than that required by law for the sale of real property upon execution, except that in lieu of following the procedure for service on a judgment debtor pursuant toNRS 21.130, service must be made on the unit's owner as follows:

(1) A copy of the notice of sale must be mailed, on or before the date of first publication or posting, by certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, to the unit's owner or his or her successor in interest at his or her address, if known, and to the address of the unit; and

(2) A copy of the notice of sale must be served, on or before the date of first publication or posting, in the manner set forth in subsection 2; and

(b) Mail, on or before the date of first publication or posting, a copy of the notice by first-class mail to:

(1) Each person entitled to receive a copy of the notice of default and election to sell notice under NRS 116.31163;

(2) The holder of a recorded security interest or the purchaser of the unit, if either of them has notified the association, before the mailing of the notice of sale, of the existence of the security interest, lease or contract of sale, as applicable; and

(3) The Ombudsman.

2.  In addition to the requirements set forth in subsection 1, a copy of the notice of sale must be served:

(a) By a person who is 18 years of age or older and who is not a party to or interested in the sale by personally delivering a copy of the notice of sale to an occupant of the unit who is of suitable age; or

(b) By posting a copy of the notice of sale in a conspicuous place on the unit.

3.  Any copy of the notice of sale required to be served pursuant to this section must include:

(a) The amount necessary to satisfy the lien as of the date of the proposed sale; and

(b) The following warning in 14-point bold type:

WARNING! A SALE OF YOUR PROPERTY IS IMMINENT! UNLESS YOU PAY THE AMOUNT SPECIFIED IN THIS NOTICE BEFORE THE SALE DATE, YOU COULD LOSE YOUR HOME, EVEN IF THE AMOUNT IS IN DISPUTE. YOU MUST ACT BEFORE THE SALE DATE. IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS, PLEASE CALL (name and telephone number of the contact person for the association). IF YOU NEED ASSISTANCE, PLEASE CALL THE FORECLOSURE SECTION OF THE OMBUDSMAN'S OFFICE, NEVADA REAL ESTATE DIVISION, AT (toll-free telephone number designated by the Division) IMMEDIATELY.

4.  Proof of service of any copy of the notice of sale required to be served pursuant to this section must consist of:

(a) A certificate of mailing which evidences that the notice was mailed through the United States Postal Service; or

(b) An affidavit of service signed by the person who served the notice stating:

(1) The time of service, manner of service and location of service; and

(2) The name of the person served or, if the notice was not served on a person, a description of the location where the notice was posted on the unit.

(Added to NRS by 1993, 2355; A 2003, 22452005, 2609)

NRS 116.31164  Foreclosure of liens: Procedure for conducting sale; purchase of unit by association; execution and delivery of deed; use of proceeds of sale.

1.  The sale must be conducted in the county in which the common-interest community or part of it is situated, and may be conducted by the association, its agent or attorney, or a title insurance company or escrow agent licensed to do business in this State, except that the sale may be made at the office of the association if the notice of the sale so provided, whether the unit is located within the same county as the office of the association or not. The association or other person conducting the sale may from time to time postpone the sale by such advertisement and notice as it considers reasonable or, without further advertisement or notice, by proclamation made to the persons assembled at the time and place previously set and advertised for the sale.

2.  On the day of sale originally advertised or to which the sale is postponed, at the time and place specified in the notice or postponement, the person conducting the sale may sell the unit at public auction to the highest cash bidder. Unless otherwise provided in the declaration or by agreement, the association may purchase the unit and hold, lease, mortgage or convey it. The association may purchase by a credit bid up to the amount of the unpaid assessments and any permitted costs, fees and expenses incident to the enforcement of its lien.

3.  After the sale, the person conducting the sale shall:

(a) Make, execute and, after payment is made, deliver to the purchaser, or his or her successor or assign, a deed without warranty which conveys to the grantee all title of the unit's owner to the unit;

(b) Deliver a copy of the deed to the Ombudsman within 30 days after the deed is delivered to the purchaser, or his or her successor or assign; and

(c) Apply the proceeds of the sale for the following purposes in the following order:

(1) The reasonable expenses of sale;

(2) The reasonable expenses of securing possession before sale, holding, maintaining, and preparing the unit for sale, including payment of taxes and other governmental charges, premiums on hazard and liability insurance, and, to the extent provided for by the declaration, reasonable attorney's fees and other legal expenses incurred by the association;

(3) Satisfaction of the association's lien;

(4) Satisfaction in the order of priority of any subordinate claim of record; and

(5) Remittance of any excess to the unit's owner.

(Added to NRS by 1991, 569; A 1993, 23722005, 2610)

NRS 116.31166  Foreclosure of liens: Effect of recitals in deed; purchaser not responsible for proper application of purchase money; title vested in purchaser without equity or right of redemption.

1.  The recitals in a deed made pursuant to NRS 116.31164 of:

(a) Default, the mailing of the notice of delinquent assessment, and the recording of the notice of default and election to sell;

(b) The elapsing of the 90 days; and

(c) The giving of notice of sale,

Ê are conclusive proof of the matters recited.

2.  Such a deed containing those recitals is conclusive against the unit's former owner, his or her heirs and assigns, and all other persons. The receipt for the purchase money contained in such a deed is sufficient to discharge the purchaser from obligation to see to the proper application of the purchase money.

3.  The sale of a unit pursuant to NRS 116.31162116.31163 and 116.31164 vests in the purchaser the title of the unit's owner without equity or right of redemption.

(Added to NRS by 1991, 570; A 1993, 2373)

NRS 116.31168  Foreclosure of liens: Requests by interested persons for notice of default and election to sell; right of association to waive default and withdraw notice or proceeding to foreclose.

1.  The provisions of NRS 107.090 apply to the foreclosure of an association's lien as if a deed of trust were being foreclosed. The request must identify the lien by stating the names of the unit's owner and the common-interest community.

2.  An association may, after recording a notice of default and election to sell, waive the default and withdraw the notice or any proceeding to foreclose. The association is thereupon restored to its former position and has the same rights as though the notice had not been recorded.

(Added to NRS by 1991, 570; A 1993, 2373)

NRS 116.3117  Liens against association.

1.  In a condominium or planned community:

(a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b), a judgment for money against the association, if a copy of the docket or an abstract or copy of the judgment is recorded, is not a lien on the common elements, but is a lien in favor of the judgment lienholder against all of the other real property of the association and all of the units in the common-interest community at the time the judgment was entered. No other property of a unit's owner is subject to the claims of creditors of the association.

(b) If the association has granted a security interest in the common elements to a creditor of the association pursuant to NRS 116.3112, the holder of that security interest shall exercise its right against the common elements before its judgment lien on any unit may be enforced.

(c) Whether perfected before or after the creation of the common-interest community, if a lien, other than a deed of trust or mortgage, including a judgment lien or lien attributable to work performed or materials supplied before creation of the common-interest community, becomes effective against two or more units, the owner of an affected unit may pay to the lienholder the amount of the lien attributable to his or her unit, and the lienholder, upon receipt of payment, promptly shall deliver a release of the lien covering that unit. The amount of the payment must be proportionate to the ratio which that owner's liability for common expenses bears to the liabilities for common expenses of all owners whose units are subject to the lien. After payment, the association may not assess or have a lien against that owner's unit for any portion of the common expenses incurred in connection with that lien.

(d) A judgment against the association must be indexed in the name of the common-interest community and the association and, when so indexed, is notice of the lien against the units.

2.  In a cooperative:

(a) If the association receives notice of an impending foreclosure on all or any portion of the association's real estate, the association shall promptly transmit a copy of that notice to each owner of a unit located within the real estate to be foreclosed. Failure of the association to transmit the notice does not affect the validity of the foreclosure.

(b) Whether an owner's unit is subject to the claims of the association's creditors, no other property of an owner is subject to those claims.

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